We have a very exciting lineup of speakers for the 2022 EMBARK Webinars! Let’s begin with the speakers for the spring. Registration opens today!
March 16: Windi Muziasari – “Global database of ARGs in the environment” Anna Abramova – “Meta-analysis reveals the global picture of antibiotic resistance gene prevalence across environments” [Register]
April 13: Ramanan Laxminarayan – “State of the World’s Antibiotics 2022” Cheng Zhao – “Optimizing antimicrobial resistance surveillance in farm animals” [Register]
May 18: Nichole Broderick – “Tiny Earth” Filipa Grosso – “Implementing citizen-based projects on Antimicrobial Resistance Awareness in Southern Europe: the experience from MicroMundo” [Register]
June 15: Marisa Haenni – “From AMR surveillance to research in the French veterinary sector” Reshma Silvester – “AMR in aquaculture- Averting the crisis and the way forward” [Register]
And for the fall, we have preliminary confirmation for the following speakers: Jon Hobman Stineke van Houte Iruka Okeke Joakim Larsson
This February issue presents studies on the presence of antibiotic resistance genes, as usual, in various environments according to the One Health concept. Human microbiome is considered as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes and in this digest we have a special highlight on the effect of antibiotics on newborns microbiome. Hospital environment is also discussed with methods for prediction of resistance and resistance prevalence in several context. Finally, studies focusing on antibiotic resistance in a more environmental perspective are also presented to complete this One Health circle.
Effects of early-life antibiotics on the developing infant gut microbiome and resistome: a randomized trial – Marta Reyman – Nature Communications In addition to the undeniable beneficial effects of antibiotics on newborns life span, antibiotics also have deleterious side effects such as microbiome species richness depletion and antibiotic resistant bacteria selection. Side effects could be even more deleterious if we take into account side effects that might have detrimental effects later in life according to the developmental origin of health and disease concept. Reyman et al. conducted the ZEBRA study enrolling 147 infants born at term either by natural delivery or cesarean section, for whom broad spectrum antibiotics were used. Reduced gut microbial diversity and prolonged ecological perturbations were detected compared with healthy term-born controls (still measurable after 12 months). Also, shifts in AMR gene profile were evidenced using qPCR and confirmed by metagenomic shotgun sequencing of a subset of samples. Those effects were different depending on the antimicrobial use (penicillin+gentamicin being the least deleterious) highlighting antibiotics choice importance.
The evolution of colistin resistance increases bacterial resistance to host antimicrobial peptides and virulence – Pramod K. Jangir – bioRxiv Colistin is an efficient antimicrobial peptide (AMP) used at a large scale in agriculture in the 1980s. Today, it is being used as “last-resort” antimicrobial to treat infections. One serious concern lies in the potential cross resistance between colistin resistance and host AMP resistance (since they have common physicochemical properties and mechanisms) which could increase pathogen transmission and virulence. Colistin resistance is mainly due to MCR-1 which became widely distributed across all niches because of bacterial migration and horizontal transfer. Here, Jangir et al. tested the hypothesis that evolving colistin resistance via MCR genes acquisition promotes resistance in bacteria against host AMPs. The presence of MCR indeed increased resistance against several AMPs coming from different sources. It highlights the importance of assessing the impact of evolved resistance to future therapeutic AMPs.
In December’s AMR digest we ask a wide range of questions. Why do antibiotics exist? What effect do they have on our own microbiota? Can they increase the colonizing capability of plasmid carrying bacteria? And what methods can we use to measure resistance against them? This is a small sample of the wide range of topics in this month’s digest.
Combinatorial, additive and dose-dependent drug–microbiome associations – Sofia K Forslund – Nature *This study used a multi-omics approach to investigate drug-microbiome interactions in patients suffering from cardiometabolic disease. The authors found that multiple antibiotic exposures had cumulative effects on the patients microbiome. Leading to reduced richness and increased resistance, which are hallmarks of microbiota in patients suffering from obesity, insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation.
Rapid absolute quantification of pathogens and ARGs by nanopore sequencing – Yu Yang – The Science of the Total Environment *Sequencing has become cheaper, faster and more accessible these last few decades. With the use of third generation sequencing these authors test a method where they can quantify the absolute abundance of both pathogens and resistance genes in 4 hours using third generation nanopore sequencing. Taking advantage of the nanopore technologies long reads, the authors were able to link resistance genes to individual taxa.
Make sure not to miss the last EMBARK Webinar of the fall! This time we have two very exciting speakers:
December 15:Willem van Schaik – “Metagenomic approaches to understand the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in microbial ecosystems” Svetlana Ugarcina Perovic – “Exploring the global resistome using the global microbial gene catalog” [Register]
The AMR digest from November features studies on antibiotic perception, consumption and also how the environment can influence AMR diffusion. Fundamental microbiology linked to AMR is also part of this month digest including subjects such as bacterial cell wall or biofilm. Different environments are also discussed within the papers on natural habitat and animals or water environments. Finally, there’s a special highlight on antibiotic resistance in cancer patient in this “movember” month.
Global antibiotic consumption and usage in humans, 2000-18: a spatial modelling study – Annie J Browne – The Lancet *This article describes how antibiotic is consumed globally. Thanks to individual level data and geostatistical model they could estimate antibiotic usage and consumption in 204 countries from 2000 to 2018. Beside large increases in the consumption of different classes of antibiotics in several regions, lack of access to antibiotics still seems to be a problem in other regions. Having those estimation, strategies can be thought to adapt the combat against antibiotic resistance increase.
Antibiotic resistance in the patient with cancer: Escalating challenges and paths forward – Amila K Nanayakkara – CA: a cancer journal for clinicians *In this interesting review, Nanayakkara and colleagues are discussing the impact of antimicrobial resistance on patient with cancer lifespan. Infection is one of the leading complications in patient with cancer and antimicrobial resistance is related to unfavorable outcomes. Several strategies are discussed to prevent antimicrobial resistant strain outbreak in patient with cancer.